Purpose : to describe the specific or particular thing/person.

Generic  Structure :

– Identification

(mention the special participant)

– Description

(mention the part, quality, and characteristics of the subject being described)

Language Features  :

  • The use of adjectives and compound adjectives

a five hundred seated football stadium

a beautiful ancient Roman opera house

  • The use of linking verbs/relating verbs

The temple is so magnificent

The temple consist of five terraces

  • The use of Simple Present Tense ? if things/persons described are still alive

The museum houses hundreds of Greek Statues

  • The use of degree of comparison

The weather in Jakarta is hotter than Bandung

Bogor has the same weather as Yogyakarta

  • The use of degree adjectives and compound adjectives

Debby is brown-skinned.

Debby is a model from Jogja.



Taj Mahal is regarded as one of the eight wonders of the world. It was built by a Muslim Emperor Shah Jahan in the memory of his dear wife at Agra.

Taj Mahal is a Mausoleum that houses the grave of queen Mumtaz Mahal. The mausoleum is a part of a vast complex comprising of a main gateway, an elaborate garden, a mosque (to the left), a guest house (to the right), and several other palatial buildings. The Taj is at the farthest end of this complex, with the river Jamuna behind it.

The Taj stands on a raised, square platform (186 x 186 feet) with its four corners truncated, forming an unequal octagon. The architectural design uses the interlocking arabesque concept, in which each element stands on its own and perfectly integrates with the main structure. It uses the principles of self-replicating geometry and a symmetry of architectural elements.

Its central dome is fifty-eight feet in diameter and rises to a height of 213 feet. It is flanked by four subsidiary domed chambers. The four graceful, slender minarets are 162.5 feet each. The central domed chamber and four adjoining chambers include many walls and panels of Islamic decoration.

Taj Mahal is built entirely of white marble. Its stunning architectural beauty is beyond adequate description, particularly at dawn and sunset. The Taj seems to glow in the light of the full moon. On a foggy morning, the visitors experience the Taj as if suspended when viewed from across the Jamuna river.


Social Function : to describe the way things are with reference to a range of natural, manmade, and social phenomenoa in our environment. The things must be a representative of their class

Generic Stucture :

– General classification: Stating classification of general aspect of thing; animal, public place, plant, etc which will be discussed in general

–  Description: Describing the thing which will be discussed in detail; part per part , customs or deed for living creature and usage for materials

Languange Features :

  • Emotive words

alarmed, worried

  • Words that qualify statements

usual probably

  • Words that link argument

snakes often sunbathe in the sun

  • Use of technical terms

water contains oxygen and hydrogen

  • Use of relating verbs

is, are, has

Example :


Birds are interesting flying animals. They are vertebrates and warm blooded animals. They belong to aves class and they can be found all over the world.

Birds breath with their air pocket. Beside as respiration organ, air pocket also can enlarge or reduce their weight when flying or swimming.

There are many kinds of birds. Earth bird has special characteristic. They have different morphology according to their food and their habitat. Some of them eat seeds, pollen, fish or meat. There are some species that live in land and the others live in water. Land birds live on their nest.

Female birds have specific tasks. they lay eggs and feed their baby, Beside that they look for foods for their baby.


Purpose : to retell, share the past event/experience. To tell the readers what happen in the past though a sequence of events.

Generic  Structure       :

Personal Recount;

– Orientation

(who were involved in the story, when, and where)

– Events

(tell what happened in a chronological order)

– Evaluation

(comments of the writer/speaker about the experience)

– Re-orientation (optional)

(the conclusion of the experience)

Factual Recount;

– Orientation

(who were involved in the story, when, and where)

– Events

(tell what happened in a chronological order)

Language Features      :

  • The use of action verbs

(e.g: went, spent, played)

  • The use of past tenses

(e.g: We went for a trip to the zoo)

  • The use of time conjunction

(e.g: and, but, after, finally)

  • The use of adverbs and adverbs of phrases

(e.g: in my house, two days ago, slowly, cheerfully)

Example :

My Rush Time as a Journalist

I usually woke up at eight o’clock a.m. and went to the Press Center to check the daily schedule of briefings and press conferences. It was usually held by the United Nation officials or disaster mitigation team.

It was challenging to visit different refugee camps to find soft stories, human interest stories. After that I went back to the Press Center to cover the press conferences of the day.

It was heart breaking when I saw these survivors fight for food and secondhand clothing. Unfortunately as they said, the food and clothing were limited and inadequate. Emerging to glaring, fool noon, it was time to go back to Press Center to write stories and race against time. I was always fearing that the internet would come crushing down.

After everything was done, only then I remembered to eat. Most times, I only ate once a day because I always had to rush and again it was difficult to find food. I had to travel quite far. I needed to spend a 30 to 45 minutes by car just to find fresh food.


Purpose : to amuse or entertain the readers with actual or imaginary experiences in difference ways.

Generic  Structure  :

– Orientation: it means to introduce the participants or the characters of the story with the time and place set. Orientation actually exists in every text type though it has different term.

– Complication: it is such the crisis of the story. If there is not the crisis, the story is not a narrative text. In a long story, the complication appears in several situations. It means that some time there is more then one complication.

– Resolution: it is the final series of the events which happen in the story. The resolution can be good or bad. The point is that it has been accomplished by the characters. Like complication, there are Major Resolution and Minor Resolution.

Language Features      :

  • The use of noun phrases

a beautiful princess

  • The use of connectives

(first, before, that, then, finally)

  • The use of adverbial phrases of time and place

in the garden

two days ago

  • The use of Simple Past Tense

(He walked away from the village)

  • The use of action verbs

(walk, sleep, wake up)

  • The use of thinking verbs, feeling verbs, verbs of senses

(She felt hungry, she thought she was clever, she smelt something burning)

Example :


Once upon a time, there was a young girl named Cinderella. She lived with her step mother and two step sisters.

The step mother and sisters were conceited and bad tempered. They treated Cinderella very badly. Her step mother made Cinderella do the hardest works in the house; such as scrubbing the floor, cleaning the pot and pan and preparing the food for the family. The two step sisters, on the other hand, did not work about the house. Their mother gave them many handsome dresses to wear.

One day, the two step sister received an invitation to the ball that the king’s son was going to give at the palace. They were excited about this and spent so much time choosing the dresses they would wear. At last, the day of the ball came, and away went the sisters to it. Cinderella could not help crying after they had left.

“Why are crying, Cinderella?” a voice asked. She looked up and saw her fairy godmother standing beside her, “because I want so much to go to the ball” said Cinderella. “Well” said the godmother,”you’ve been such a cheerful, hardworking, uncomplaining girl that I am going to see that you do go to the ball”.

Magically, the fairy godmother changed a pumpkin into a fine coach and mice into a coachman and two footmen. Her godmother tapped Cinderella’s raged dress with her wand, and it became a beautiful ball gown. Then she gave her a pair of pretty glass slippers. “Now, Cinderella”, she said; “You must leave before midnight”. Then away she drove in her beautiful coach.

Cinderella was having a wonderfully good time. She danced again and again with the king’s son. Suddenly the clock began to strike twelve, she ran toward the door as quickly as she could. In her hurry, one of her glass slipper was left behind.

A few days later, the king’ son proclaimed that he would marry the girl whose feet fitted the glass slipper. Her step sisters tried on the slipper but it was too small for them, no matter how hard they squeezed their toes into it. In the end, the king’s page let Cinderella try on the slipper. She stuck out her foot and the page slipped the slipper on. It fitted perfectly.

Finally, she was driven to the palace. The king’s son was overjoyed to see her again. They were married and live happily ever after.


Purpose : to tell how to make something or help us do a task. They can be a set of instructions or directions.

Generic  Structure :

– Goal

(the final purpose of doing the instructions)

– Materials/ingredients

(ingredients, utensils, equipment to do the instructions)

– Steps

(a set of instructions to achieve the final purpose)

Language Features      :

  • Use of imperatives

(e.g: cut, don’t mix)

  • Use of action verbs

(e.g: turn, put, mix)

  • Use of connectives

(e.g: first, then, finally…)

  • Use of adverbial phrases

(e.g: for five minutes, 2 centimeters from the top)

Example :

How To Make a Chocolate Pound Cake

Ingredients :

• 1/4 cup Process Cocoa

• 2-1/4 cups Cake Flour

• 3/4 cup Sugar

• 3 Egg Whites

• 1 tsp Powdered Sugar

• 2 tsp Vanilla

• 3/4 tsp Baking Soda

• 8 Ounces Low-Fat Yogurt

• 1/4 cup Margarine

• 1/4 tsp Salt

• 1/4 cup Prune Puree

How to make Chocolate Pound Cake :

• Grease the sides and bottom of a loaf pan with cooking spray.

• Sprinkle one teaspoon flour and leave aside.

• Blend prunes puree with margarine in a bowl. Add sugar and beat properly.

• Add egg whites in the above and beat again for 5 minutes until blended. Now add vanilla.

• Mix together the remaining flour, soda, cocoa and salt in a separate bowl.

• Add it to the prune puree blend alternatively with yoghurt.

• Pour this mixture into the greased loaf pan.

• Bake for 55-60 minutes in a preheated oven at 350 degrees F.

• Allow to cool and chocolate pound cake is ready.


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